Billy R. Hammond, Ph.D.

  • Graduate Coordinator
  • Professor
  • Behavioral and Brain Sciences Program
  • Ph.D. University of New Hampshire, 1994

Research Interests

The Vision Sciences laboratory studies all aspects of the human visual system. This extends from basic studies of the cornea, lens and retina to applied studies of visual processing within the brain. A primary focus of the laboratory has been the investigation of how lifestyle, primarily dietary, influences both the development of degenerative disease and the normal function of the central nervous system. For example, we use psychophysical methods to measure the concentration of the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin within the fovea (termed macular pigment or the macula lutea) and have related those pigments to various aspects of retinal and brain function.

The combination of expertise and our interdisciplinary approach has led to insights in a diversity of areas. For example, we have published data relative to the development of age-related eye disease and we are currently studying preventive approaches to dementia (including Alzheimers and Cognitive decline). We are also working on issues in Sports Vision and other aspects of visual performance. Another strong area in our laboratory is the maturation of the infant visual system and brain.

Selected Publications

Renzi, L. and Hammond, B.R. (2010).  The relation between the macular carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin, and temporal vision. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 30(4), 351-357.

Wooten, B.R., Renzi, L., Moore, R. and Hammond, B.R.  (2010). A practical method of measuring the temporal modulation transfer function. Biomedical Optics Express, 1(1), 47-58.

Renzi, L. and Hammond, B.R. (2010).  The effect of macular pigment on heterochromatic luminance contrast.  Experimental Eye Research, 91(6), 896-900. 

Hammond, B.R., Renzi, L.M., Sachak, S. and Brint, S.F. A (2010).  A contralateral comparison of blue-filtering and non-blue-filtering intraocular lenses: glare disability, heterochromatic contrast threshold, and photostress recovery.  Clinical Ophthalmology, 4, 1465-73.

Lien, E. and Hammond, B.R. (2011).  Nutritional influences on visual development and function.  Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 30, 188-203

Hammond, B.R., Wooten, B.R., Engles, M. and Wong, J.C. (2012). The influence of filtering by the macular carotenoids on contrast sensitivity measured under simulated blue haze conditions. Vision Research, 63, 58-62.

Hammond, B. R., and Fletcher, L. M. (2012). Influence of the dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on visual performance: application to baseball. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 96(5), 1207S-1213S.

Hammond, B.R. (2012). The dietary carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin in pre-and- postnatal development. Functional Food Reviews, 4 (3). 130-137.

Hammond, B.R., Fletcher, L. and Elliott, J. (2013) Glare disability, photostress recovery, and chromatic contrast: relation to serum and retinal lutein and zeaxanthin. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 54(1), 476-81.

Renzi, L.M., Dengler, M.J., Puente, A., Miller, L.S. and Hammond, B.R. (2014). Relations between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Neurobiology of Aging, 35(7), 1695-1699.

Courses Regularaly Taught

Undergraduate

  • Sensation and Perception
  • Health Psychology

Graduate

  • Vision Science Seminar

Selected Professional Activites

  • Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Adjunct Faculty
  • Foods and Nutrition Department, University of Georgia Faculty
  • Gerontology Program, University of Georgia